Should we take nutrition supplements? – Part 4

The Journal of the American Medical Association.

As recent as 1987, the Journal of the American Medical Association was still promoting bad nutrition advice with their long-standing belief that, “Healthy adult men and healthy adult nonpregnant, nonlactating women consuming a usual, varied diet do not need vitamin supplements.” It was believed that most people could obtain adequate amounts of these nutrients from their diet alone, which is simply not the case. (37)

In 2002, the AMA reversed their policy on vitamin supplements by announcing that the Journal of the American Medical Association would begin advising all adults to take at least one multivitamin each day.

According to Drs. Fletcher and Fairfield of Harvard University who wrote JAMA’s new guidelines, “most people do not consume an optimal amount of all vitamins by diet alone…Recent evidence has shown that suboptimal levels of vitamins, even well above those causing deficiency syndromes, are risk factors for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and osteoporosis…The high prevalence of suboptimal vitamin levels implies that the usual US diet provides an insufficient amount of these vitamins. We recommend that all adults take one multivitamin daily.” (38)

Nutrition Insurance?

“A daily multivitamin is a great nutrition insurance policy.” (39) – Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health 

Harvard Health Letter, Multivitamins: Should you buy this insurance? “Dr. Walter Willett, chair of the Harvard School of Public Health’s nutrition department, has suggested that taking a multivitamin daily is a form of nutritional insurance. He still says it’s a good policy.” (40) Dr. Walter C. Willett, M.D., Dr. P.H., is Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and the most-cited nutritionist in the world.

New York Times- “Dr. Walter Willett, a professor at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, says it’s reasonable to take a daily multivitamin “for insurance.” Dr. Willett said that clinical trials underestimate supplements’ true benefits because they aren’t long enough, often lasting five to 10 years. It could take decades to notice a lower rate of cancer or heart disease in vitamin takers, he said.” (41)

“Should you take a multivitamin-multimineral supplement? It can certainly provide some nutritional insurance.” (42) -Dr. Eric Rimm, Sc.D., Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition and Director of the Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, and Professor of Medicine at the Harvard Medical School.

Wall Street Journal- “I recommend that most people take a multivitamin for one simple reason: Multivitamins are a safe, inexpensive way for people to be sure that they are getting enough of the many vitamins that contribute to good health. They are low-cost nutritional insurance.” (43) -Dr. Meir J. Stampfer, M.D., Dr.P.H., Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

“If someone is concerned about their diet and they don’t think that it’s well-balanced, we should encourage them first to try to have the more balanced diet, but it is a reasonable form of insurance to take a multivitamin. (44)” –Dr. JoAnn Manson, M.D., Dr. P.H., Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School. Chief, Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital.

“We know, for the most part, that multivitamins are seen as a kind of insurance against any deficiency that might be present. (45) -Dr. Howard D. Sesso, Sc.D., MPH, FAHA, is an Associate Professor of Medicine and Director of Nutrition Research at the Division of Preventive Medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and an Associate Professor of Epidemiology at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

“I think that the main reason people should continue to take a multivitamin is to prevent the deficiency state. Even as adults, we don’t always get the right levels of the essential vitamins and minerals.” (46)-Dr. J. Dr. Michael Gaziano, M.D., M.P.H., Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief Division of Aging, Brigham and Women’s Hospital; Director of Preventive Cardiology and Director of Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center (MAVERIC).

Because MVMs [Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements] are cheap, readily available, and nontoxic (47) , why not recommend that people take an MVM, particularly because much epidemiologic, biochemical, and other evidence points to the need for an adequate supply of vitamins and minerals for optimum function on many levels? At a minimum, taking an MVM is good insurance.” (48)Dr. Bruce Ames, Ph.D., Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley, and a senior scientist at Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Dr. Ames is one of the most cited scientists in history.

“The simplest way to support your nutrition is to take a general multivitamin and mineral supplement providing a broad range of nutrients at standard nutritional levels.”- Mercyhealth (49)

Mercyhealth is a regional health system with seven hospitals and 85 primary and specialty care locations throughout 50 northern Illinois and southern Wisconsin communities comprising 8,000+ employee partners and 850+ employed physicians.

Regarding multivitamins, (50) “Everybody in the world should take one as insurance and try to eat a good diet.” -Dr. Bruce Ames, Ph.D., professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley, and a senior scientist at Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Dr. Ames is one of the most cited scientists in history.

“Because nutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent in the United States (and elsewhere), appropriate supplementation and/or an improved diet could reduce much of the consequent risk of chronic disease and premature aging.” (51) -Dr. Bruce Ames, Ph.D.

“Given the fact that many people are not meeting micronutrient intake recommendations, a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement would offer insurance that most micronutrient needs are met. (52) -Dr. Victoria J. Drake, Ph.D., Manager, Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University

“Think about a daily multivitamin as a nutrition insurance policy…(53) Dr. Taylor C. Wallace, Ph.D., CFS, FACN, Adjunct Professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Studies at George Mason University.

“I take a … multivitamin every day as a little insurance policy. (54)” –Dr. David Levitsky, Ph.D., Professor of Nutrition and Psychology at Cornell University.

“When a patient’s diet isn’t ideal, then a multivitamin can offer insurance for the deficient vitamins and/or minerals. (55)-Dr. Eve Glazier, M.D., MBA, and Dr. Elizabeth Ko, M.D. Both Doctors are internists at UCLA Health. Dr. Glazier is an associate professor of medicine; Dr. Ko is an assistant professor of medicine.

“A daily multivitamin is a great nutrition insurance policy.” (56) -IFIS (International Food Information Services)

“Should I take a multivitamin for my health, at least for dietary insurance?…a little insurance against something that may be missing from your diet couldn’t hurt.” (57)Center for Science in the Public Interest.

“Nutrition Supplements: Vitamins, Minerals, and Non-Nutrient Supplements…The original (and still important) method of using nutrients involves taking them at around the level of nutrition needs. This method may be considered nutrition insurance for the majority of us who don’t get all the nutrients we need from foods.” (58) Beth Israel Lahey Health Winchester Hospital, Winchester, Mass.

Why Take Vitamins and Supplements? They operate as, “a great insurance policy against developing nutrient deficiencies,” they can “benefit immunity, mood, muscular function, and mental acuity,” says Clinical Dietician Jordan Jennewine, MS, RDN, LD, CSSD, of Kroger Health. (59)

“I look at vitamin-mineral supplements as a bit of inexpensive nutrition insurance…” (60)Dr. Julie Garden-Robinson, Ph.D., L.R.D., North Dakota State University Extension Service food and nutrition specialist and Associate Professor in the Department of Health, Nutrition and Exercise Sciences.

“We recommend that twice a day, most people take a half a multivitamin, containing important nutrients at levels close to their recommended daily allowance. It’s a great, inexpensive insurance policy against an imperfect diet. (61)Dr. Mehmet Oz, M.D., and Dr. Mike Roizen, M.D. Dr. Oz is host of “The Dr. Oz Show,” and Dr. Roizen is Chief Wellness Officer and Chair of the Wellness Institute at Cleveland Clinic.

“Think of it this way: multivitamins can be an insurance policy. They can potentially help you fill gaps in your nutrition…” (62)Rosalyn D’Angelo, Bupa Dietitian, Australia

“You should only take multivitamins “sort of as an insurance policy.”’ (63)Dr. Christopher R. D’Adamo, Ph.D., Director of research and education at the University of Maryland Medical School’s Center for Integrative Medicine.

“A daily multivitamin is a great nutrition insurance policy.” (64) -Community Health of Central Washington.

“A daily multivitamin is a great nutrition insurance policy.” (65)United Way of Southeastern Connecticut.

“A daily multivitamin is a great nutrition insurance policy.” (66) – Atlantic Cape Community College Health Office.

Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrient Supplementation

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association) advocates meeting nutritional needs through wise selection of a wide variety of foods, but has adopted a policy statement recognizing that “Many Americans do not consume the amount and types of foods necessary to meet recommended micronutrient intakes,” and that additional nutrients from supplements “can help some people meet their nutrition needs as specified by science-based nutrition standards such as the Dietary Reference Intakes.” (67)

Blue Cross Blue Shield of Illinois– “Supplements may be beneficial in safeguarding the body against deficiencies of vital nutrients.” (68)

“This research makes a good case for the daily use of a multivitamin. I like to think of it as a nutrition insurance policy that helps fill in the gaps for those nutrients you may not be getting in your diet.” (69)

“I remember Gina Sunderland’s advice: take your nutritional insurance. See Sunderland, a Winnipeg-based registered dietician, is a big fan of taking multivitamins a.k.a. our nutritional insurance, in part to offset the I shouldas.” (70)

“Healthy food is the best source of most nutrients, although during pregnancy your daily prenatal vitamin is good nutrition insurance.” (71) -Trihealth

“Don’t think of supplements as something you don’t need. You definitely need supplements.” (72)

-Dr. David Heber, M.D., Ph.D., FACP, FACN. Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Public Health, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and UCLA School of Public Health. Founding Director, UCLA Center for Human Nutrition. Director, NCI-funded Clinical Nutrition Research Unit. Member, UCLA Collaborative Centers for Integrative Medicine; Member, UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center

 

A multivitamin-mineral supplement is one low-cost way to ensure intake of the Recommended Dietary Allowance of micronutrients throughout life.” (47) Dr. Bruce Ames, Ph.D., Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley, and a senior scientist at Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Dr. Ames is one of the most cited scientists in history.

“The potential benefits of MVM [Multivitamin/Mineral] supplements likely outweigh any risk in the general population and may be particularly beneficial for older people.” (73)Elizabeth M. Ward, MS, RD, spokesperson for the American Dietetic Association for nearly 10 years.

“Taking a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement not only helps fill known nutritional gaps in the diet of most persons in the United States (thereby ensuring normal body function and supporting good health) but may have the added benefit of helping to reduce the risk for some chronic diseases.” (34)

Dr. Balz Frei, Ph.D., Director & Endowed Chair Emeritus, Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University. (34)

Dr. Bruce Ames, Ph.D., Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley, and a senior scientist at Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Dr. Ames is one of the most cited scientists in history.  (34)

Dr. Jeffrey B. Blumberg Ph.D., FACN, CNS, Professor Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy Senior Scientist, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging Tufts University. (34)

Dr. Walter C. Willett, M.D., Dr. P.H., is Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and the most-cited nutritionist in the world. (34)

According to the Mayo Clinic, “Vitamins and minerals are substances your body needs to grow properly, function normally and stay healthy. It’s possible — and highly recommended — that you get these substances from the foods you eat. However, it sometimes can be difficult to get the recommended amount of some vitamins and minerals from diet alone. That’s why it’s not unusual to hear that taking a multivitamin or other supplement on a daily basis can make good sense.” (74)

Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes…” (23)

“The use of dietary supplements has the potential to lower the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes among adults for many micronutrients.” (23) (75, 76, 77)

“A large proportion of older adults do not consume sufficient amounts of many nutrients from foods alone. Supplements compensate to some extent, but only an estimated half of this population uses them daily. These widespread inadequacies should be considered when developing recommendations for supplement use for clients in this age group. Modifying dietary attitudes may result in a higher rate of supplement use in this at-risk population.” (75)

Dietary supplements constitute an important source of nutrients for large segments of the population, and more than one-half of the US population reports usage.” (76)

“Dietary supplement use is associated with higher prevalence of groups meeting the AI (Adequate Intake) for calcium and vitamin D.” (77)

The ability of the skin to use ultraviolet light to synthesize vitamin D3 also decreases with age and is inefficient in dark-skinned people. Because dietary sources of vitamin D3 are not plentiful, supplements are recommended for those groups” (78, 48).

“Dietary supplements (DS) can be an important source of vitamins and minerals to prevent inadequate dietary intakes.” (79)

With all these experts recommending supplementation of necessary nutrients, why would anyone not do it? Why would any healthcare provider not recommend the same when we see overwhelming evidence for widespread nutrient deficiencies?

via GIPHY

Once again the self-proclaimed “Real Doctor”, is debunked and I’m just getting started 🙂

To your health,

Dr. Farrah

References:

  1. Chen, Brian X. How to Deal With a Crisis of Misinformation, The New York Times. Oct. 14, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/14/technology/personaltech/how-to-deal-with-a-crisis-of-misinformation.html
  2. Ong, J. C. and J. Cabanes. “Architects of Networked Disinformation: Behind the Scenes of Troll Accounts and Fake News Production in the Philippines.” (2018). https://bit.ly/3nZUAVs
  3. Oregon State Linus Pauling Institute, Micronutrient Information Center, Glossary. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/glossary#vitamin
  4. Nichols T. The death of expertise. Federalist. January 17, 2014. http://thefederalist.com/2014/01/17/the-death-of-expertise. Accessed April 27, 2018. http://thefederalist.com/2014/01/17/the-death-of-expertise
  5. Katz DL. How to improve clinical practice and medical education about nutrition. AMA J Ethics. 2018;20(10):E994-1000. https://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/article/how-improve-clinical-practice-and-medical-education-about-nutrition/2018-10
  6. Eysenck, Hans J. “Raising I.Q. through vitamin and mineral supplementation: An introduction.” (1991). https://web.archive.org/web/20180622072507/https://foodforthebrain.org/media/229778/introSuppsraiseIQEysenck91.pdf
  7. King, Janet C. An Evidence-Based Approach for Establishing Dietary Guidelines, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 137, Issue 2, February 2007, Pages 480–483, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/137.2.480
  8. Oregon State Linus Pauling Institute, Micronutrient Information Center, Micronutrient Inadequacies in the US Population: an Overview. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/micronutrient-inadequacies/overview
  9. Scheer, Roddy. Moss, Doug. EarthTalk® Dirt Poor: Have Fruits and Vegetables Become Less Nutritious? Scientific American, April 27, 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20200802195128/https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/soil-depletion-and-nutrition-loss/
  10. Klein BP, Perry AK. Ascorbic acid and vitamin A activity in selected vegetables from different geographical areas of the United States. J Food Sci 1982;47:941–948. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1982.tb12750.x
  11. Bergner P. The Healing Power of Minerals, Special Nutrients and Trace Elements. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing Co., 1997:46–75. https://web.archive.org/web/20181222221357/http://www.medherb.com/gathering/Minerals0803-wo-photo.pdf
  12. Mayer AM. Historical changes in the mineral content of fruits and vegetables. British Food Journal. 1997;99:207–211. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4612/520834c1043b76e1f475cedfdba5a208ef3a.pdf
  13. Jack A. America’s vanishing nutrients: Decline in fruit and vegetable quality poses serious health and environmental risks. 2005. https://web.archive.org/web/20160910102905/http://rockdustlocal.com/uploads/3/4/3/4/34349856/americas_vanishing_nutrients.pdf
  14. Lyne, J. and P. Barak (2000). Are depleted soils causing a reduction in mineral content of food crops? ASA/CSSA/SSSA Annual Meeting. Minneapolis, MN. https://web.archive.org/web/20200628210518/https://soils.wisc.edu/facstaff/barak/poster_gallery/minneapolis2000a/
  15. R Davis, Donald & D Epp, Melvin & D Riordan, Hugh. (2004). Changes in USDA Food Composition Data for 43 Garden Crops, 1950 to 1999. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 23. 669-82. https://bit.ly/3hY5gR9
  16. Sudhir Kr Sinha, Dr. (2014). Trace elements deficiency & cancer. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 9. 21-32. http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jpbs/papers/Vol9-issue4/Version-2/C09422132.pdf
  17. Davis, Donald. (2009). Declining Fruit and Vegetable Nutrient Composition: What Is the Evidence?. Hort. Sci. 44. 10.21273/HORTSCI.44.1.15. https://journals.ashs.org/hortsci/view/journals/hortsci/44/1/article-p15.xml
  18. Barrett, Stephen. Twenty-Eight Ways to Spot Quacks and Vitamin Pushers. https://web.archive.org/web/20180930071755/https://www.quackwatch.org/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/spotquack.html
  19. U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors, Release 6. December 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20200825190300/https://data.nal.usda.gov/system/files/retn06.pdf
  20. Awuchi Godswill et al. Health Benefits of Micronutrients (Vitamins and Minerals) and their Associated Deficiency Diseases: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Food Sciences, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 1, p. 1 – 32, jan. 2020. https://bit.ly/34xdvQM
  21. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Summary. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2000:1-20. https://www.nap.edu/read/9810/chapter/2
  22. Wallace TC, McBurney M, Fulgoni VL, 3rd. Multivitamin/mineral supplement contribution to micronutrient intakes in the United States, 2007-2010. J Am Coll Nutr. 2014;33(2):94-102. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24724766
  23. Bailey RL, Fulgoni VL 3rd, Keast DR, Dwyer JT. Examination of vitamin intakes among US adults by dietary supplement use. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(5):657-663. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3593649/
  24. Otten JJ, Hellwig JP, Meyers LD, eds. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2006. http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/DRI/Essential_Guide/DRIEssentialGuideNutReq.pdf
  25. National Institutes of Health, Dietary Supplement Database. Daily Value. Available at: http://www.dsld.nlm.nih.gov/dsld/dailyvalue.jsp Accessed August 2, 2019
  26. Blumberg JB, Frei B, Fulgoni VL, 3rd, Weaver CM, Zeisel SH. Vitamin and mineral intake is inadequate for most Americans: What should we advise patients about supplements? J Fam Pract. 2016;65(Suppl 9):S1–S8. https://www.mdedge.com/sites/default/files/jfp_vitamin_suppl_0916.pdf
  27. Bush, Barbara. Welsh, Hugh. Hidden hunger: America’s growing malnutrition epidemic. The Guardian, February 10, 2015. https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2015/feb/10/nutrition-hunger-food-children-vitamins-us
  28. Center for Science in the Public Interest, Why Good Nutrition is Important. https://cspinet.org/eating-healthy/why-good-nutrition-important
  29. Volpe R, Okrent A. Assessing the Healthfulness of Consumers’ Grocery Purchases: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 2012. https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/262129/files/33405_eib102.pdf
  30. Micha R, Peñalvo JL, Cudhea F, Imamura F, Rehm CD, Mozaffarian D. Association Between Dietary Factors and Mortality From Heart Disease, Stroke, and Type 2 Diabetes in the United States. JAMA. 2017;317(9):912–924. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2608221
  31. US Burden of Disease Collaborators, Mokdad AH, Ballestros K, et al. The State of US Health, 1990-2016: Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Among US States. JAMA. 2018;319(14):1444–1472. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5933332/
  32. Fulgoni VL 3rd, Keast DR, Bailey RL, Dwyer J. Foods, fortificants, and supplements: Where do Americans get their nutrients? J Nutr. 2011;141:1847-54. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3174857/
  33. Gaziano JM, Sesso HD, Christen WG, et al. Multivitamins in the Prevention of Cancer in Men: The Physicians’ Health Study II Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA. 2012;308(18):1871–1880. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/1380451
  34. Frei B, Ames BN, Blumberg JB, Willett WC. Enough is enough [Letter]. Ann Intern Med. 2014:160(11):807 https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jeffrey_Blumberg/publication/262780928_Enough_Is_Enough/links/53dea04e0cf2a76fb668019d/Enough-Is-Enough.pdf
  35. Centers for Disease Control. Second National Report on Biochemical Indicators of Diet and Nutrition in the U.S. Population. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/nutritionreport/pdf/Nutrition_Book_complete508_final.pdf Accessed July 1, 2019.
  36. American Academy of Pediatrics Council on Environmental Health, Rogan WJ, Paulson JA, et al. Policy Statement: Iodine deficiency, pollutant chemicals, and the thyroid: new information on an old problem. Pediatrics. 2014; 133(6): 1163-6. https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/133/6/1163.long
  37. Vitamin Preparations as Dietary Supplements and as Therapeutic Agents. JAMA. 1987;257(14):1929–1936. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/365495
  38. Fletcher RH and Fairfield KM. Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults: Clinical Applications. JAMA, June 19, 2002; 287:3127-129. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/195039
  39. Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. The Nutrition Source, Nutrition Insurance Policy: A Daily Multivitamin. https://web.archive.org/web/20191123170126/https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/multivitamin/
  40. Harvard Medical School, Harvard Health Letter, Multivitamins: Should you buy this insurance? September, 2006. https://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletter_article/multivitamins-should-you-buy-this-insurance
  41. Liz Szabo, Liz. Older Americans Are ‘Hooked’ on Vitamins, New York Times, April 3, 2018 https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/03/well/older-americans-vitamins-dietary-supplements.html
  42. Skerrett, Patrick J. Daily multivitamin-multimineral may help protect against cancer. Harvard Health Blog, Harvard Medical School. October 17, 2012. https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/daily-multivitamin-multimineral-may-help-protect-against-cancer-201210175419
  43. Stampfer, Meir. Is It a Good Idea for Adults to Take a Daily Multivitamin? YES: People Should Think of Them as Low-Cost Nutritional Insurance. Wall Street Journal, April 11, 2017. https://www.wsj.com/articles/is-it-a-good-idea-for-adults-to-take-a-daily-multivitamin-1491962581
  44. Goldberg, Carey. Vitamin Reality Check: New Evidence-Based Overview On Who Should Be Taking What. WBUR 90.9FM. https://www.wbur.org/commonhealth/2018/02/05/vitamin-evidence
  45. Brownstein, Joseph. ABC NEWS Medical Unit. Should Men Be Taking Men’s Supplements? ABC NEWS, July 1, 2009. https://abcnews.go.com/Health/MensHealthNews/story?id=7969671&page=1
  46. Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Multivitamins May Reduce Cancer Risk in Men Video – Brigham and Women’s Hospital, https://youtu.be/jz6-sdW9HWc
  47. Ames BN. Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of aging through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triage. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103:17589–94. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17101959
  48. Ames, Bruce & McCann, Joyce & Stampfer, Meir & Willett, Walter. (2007). Evidence-based decision making on micronutrients and chronic disease: Long-term randomized controlled trials are not enough [1]. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 86. 522-3. https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/86/2/522/4633105
  49. Mercyhealth System Nutritional Support. https://web.archive.org/web/20150908160855/http://mercyhealthsystem.org/health-library/?chunkid=21731&lang=English&db=hlt
  50. Sanders, Robert. Megavitamins may be useful treatment for many genetic diseases, or just good insurance to tune up body’s metabolism. University of California, Berkeley Press Release, April 4, 2002. https://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2002/04/04_vitam1.html
  51. Ames, BN. Prolonging healthy aging: Longevity vitamins and proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115(43):10836–10844. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205492/
  52. Drake, Victoria. Oregon State University, Linus Pauling Institute, Micronutrient Information Center, Multivitamin/mineral Supplements. August 2011. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/multivitamin-mineral-supplements
  53. Wallace, Taylor. The Multiple Benefits Of A Daily Multivitamin, Dec 09, 2013. https://drtaylorwallace.com/multiple-benefits-of-a-daily-multivitamin/
  54. Raymond, Joan. Is it OK to take vitamin supplements every day? Today Show, Feb. 9, 2015 https://www.today.com/health/it-ok-take-vitamin-supplements-every-day-t1376
  55. Ask the Doctors – Should I take a multivitamin, just to be safe? UCLA Health, August 10, 2018. https://connect.uclahealth.org/2018/08/10/ask-the-doctors-should-i-take-a-multivitamin-just-to-be-safe/
  56. Howard, Dave. Healthy Eating: 10 Nutrition Tips for Eating Right. Ifis.org January 6, 2014. https://www.ifis.org/blog/2014/food-science-and-technology/healthy-eating-ten-nutrition-tips-for-eating-right
  57. Center for Science in the Public Interest, Should I Take a Multivitamin? July 27, 2015 https://cspinet.org/tip/should-i-take-multivitamin
  58. Beth Israel Lahey Health Winchester Hospital, Winchester, Mass. Health Library, Nutrition Supplements: Vitamins, Minerals, and Non-Nutrient Supplements. https://www.winchesterhospital.org/health-library/article?id=37436
  59. A Beginner’s Guide to Taking Vitamins and Supplements. Kroger Health Editors, https://www.kroger.com/health/wellness-your-way/wellness-tips/how-to-take-vitamins-and-supplements
  60. Garden-Robinson, Julie. Prairie Fare: Nutritious Foods and Supplements Promote Health. North Dakota State University Agriculture Communication. https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/news/columns/prairie-fare/prairie-fare-nutritious-foods-and-supplements-promote-health/
  61. Special to The Oregonian, Drs. Oz and Roizen: Don’t stop taking your multivitamin, Jan 14, 2014. https://www.oregonlive.com/health/2014/01/drs_oz_and_roizen_dont_stop_ta.html
  62. D’Angelo, Rosalyn. Multivitamin myths, Bupa Health Link, November 18, 2016. https://www.bupa.com.au/healthlink/mind-and-body/weight-management/weight-loss/diet-myths/multivitamin-myths
  63. Olson, David. Studies on health benefits of vitamins, supplements bring different conclusions. Newsday, May 17, 2019. https://www.newsday.com/news/health/consumer-guide-to-vitamins-and-supplements-1.31165505
  64. Community Health of Central Washington. March is National Nutrition Month. https://chcw.org/national-nutrition-month/
  65. United Way of Southeastern Connecticut. Making Informed Food Choices. https://www.uwsect.org/making-informed-food-choices
  66. Atlantic Cape Community College, Health Office, Nutrition, What Should You Eat? https://sites.google.com/a/atlantic.edu/health-office/nutrition
  67. Marra MV, Boyar AP. Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrient supplementation. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(12):2073-2085. https://web.archive.org/web/20200724213312/https://jandonline.org/article/S0002-8223%2809%2901696-4/fulltext
  68. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Illinois, https://www.bcbsil.com/health/achieving_wellness/supplements
  69. Bruno, Gene. The American Diet, Nutrient Intake and The Case for Multivitamins. Total Health Magazine. October 2014. https://www.huhs.edu/sites/default/files/files/Multvitamins%20article.pdf
  70. Van Den Broek, Astrid. Should I take a multivitamin? Chatelaine, Updated Jun 11, 2014. https://www.chatelaine.com/health/should-i-take-a-multivitamin/
  71. TriHealth, Institutes & Services, Women’s Services, Guidelines for Healthy Eating. https://www.trihealth.com/institutes-and-services/womens-services/pregnancy-and-childbirth/maternity-resources/guidelines-for-healthy-eating
  72. Heber, David. NUTRITION WHY’S #24: WHY SUPPLEMENTS? You need supplements, because no one eats a perfect diet all the time. https://drdavidheber.com/2018/01/08/nutrition-whys-24-why-supplements-you-need-supplements-because-no-one-eats-a-perfect-diet-all-the-time/
  73. Ward E. Addressing nutritional gaps with multivitamin and mineral supplements. Nutr J. 2014;13:72. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-72 https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/1475-2891-13-72
  74. Mayo Clinic Womens Health Source, Special Report, Vitamins and Minerals, July 2009. https://www.mayoclinic.org/documents/mc5129-0709-sp-rpt-pdf/doc-20079085
  75. Sebastian RS, Cleveland LE, Goldman JD, Moshfegh AJ. Older adults who use vitamin/mineral supplements differ from nonusers in nutrient intake adequacy and dietary attitudes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107(8):1322–1332. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17659898
  76. Bailey RL, Dodd KW, Gahche JJ, et al. Total folate and folic acid intake from foods and dietary supplements in the United States: 2003–2006. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(1):231–237. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2793110/
  77. Bailey RL, Dodd KW, Goldman JA, et al. Estimation of total usual calcium and vitamin D intakes in the United States. J Nutr. 2010;140(4):817–822. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2838624/
  78. Bischoff-Ferrari H, Giovannucci E, Willett W, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr  2006;84:18–28. https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/84/1/18/4633029
  79. Bird, Julia K et al. “Risk of Deficiency in Multiple Concurrent Micronutrients in Children and Adults in the United States.” Nutrients vol. 9,7 655. 24 June 2017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5537775/#app1-nutrients-09-00655

The watching, interacting and participation of any kind and in any way with anything on this video, multimedia, article or page does not constitute or initiate a doctor patient relationship with Dr. Farrah. None of the statements here have been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The products of Dr. Farrah are not intended to diagnosetreatcure, or prevent any disease. The information being provided should only be considered for education and entertainment purposes only. If you feel that anything you see or hear may be of value to you on this video or on any video or other medium of any kind associated with, showing or quoting anything relating to Dr. Farrah in any way at any time, you are encouraged to and agree to consult with a licensed healthcare professional in your area to discuss it. If you feel that you’re having a healthcare emergency, seek medical attention immediately. The views expressed here are not medical advice, they are simply the viewpoints and opinions of Dr. Farrah or others appearing and are protected under the first amendment.

Dr. Farrah is a highly experienced Licensed Medical Doctor, not some enthusiast, formulator or medium promoting the wild and unrestrained use of herbs and nutrition products for health issues without clinical experience and scientific evidence of therapeutic benefit. Dr. Farrah promotes evidence-based natural approaches to health, which means integrating her individual scientific and clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research as well as from the recommendations and experiences of respected experts. By individual clinical expertise, I refer to the proficiency and judgment that individual clinicians acquire through clinical experience and clinical practice.

Dr. Farrah does not make any representation or warranties with respect to the accuracy, applicability, fitness, or completeness of any video or multimedia content provided anywhere at any time. Dr. Farrah does not warrant the performance, effectiveness or applicability of any sites listed, linked or referenced to, in, or by any video content related to her, showing her or referencing her at any time.

To be clear, the video or multimedia content provided is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read or seen in any website, video, article or multimedia of any kind.

Dr. Farrah hereby disclaims any and all liability to any party for any direct, indirect, implied, punitive, special, incidental or other consequential damages arising directly or indirectly from any use of this or any other video or multimedia content, which is provided as is, and without warranties.